Flight dynamics is the study of the performance, stability, and control of vehicles flying through the air or in outer space. It is concerned with how forces acting on the vehicle influence its speed and attitude with respect to time.
In fixed-wing aircraft, the changing orientation of the vehicle with respect to the local air flow is represented by two critical parameters, angle of attack ("alpha") and angle of sideslip ("beta"). These angles describe the vector direction of airspeed, important because it is the principal source of modulations in the aerodynamic forces and moments applied to the aircraft.
Spacecraft flight dynamics involve three forces: propulsive (rocket engine), gravitational, and lift and drag (when traveling through the earths or any other celestial atmosphere). Because aerodynamic forces involved with spacecraft flight are very small, this leaves gravity as the dominant force.
Aircraft and spacecraft share a critical interest in their orientation with respect to the earth horizon and heading, and this is represented by another set of angles, "yaw," "pitch" and "roll" which angles match their colloquial meaning, but also have formal definition as an Euler sequence. These angles are the product of the rotational equations of motion, where orientation responds to torque, just as the velocity of a vehicle responds to forces. For all flight vehicles, these two sets of dynamics, rotational and translational, operate simultaneously and in a coupled fashion to evolve the vehicle's state (orientation and velocity) trajectory.
List was originally a Danish settlement. It was first mentioned in 1292 (Lystum). The original village was destroyed by the great flood of 1364. The settlement was rebuilt further east from the previous location. In the mid-15th century, a church named St. Jürgen was mentioned. In a treaty of 1460, Schleswig and Holstein were linked to the Danish crown, but List remained part of the royal enclaves, small areas of the Kingdom of Denmark situated within the Duchy of Schleswig, but directly controlled by the Danish king.
From the 16th century, the people of List mostly made a living from Oyster farming, raising sheep and collecting and selling gull eggs. At the time, List was an important protective anchorage. In 1644, a Swedish-Dutch fleet of 26 ships commanded by Admiral Thijssen was attacked in the Lister Tief and defeated by Danish ships commanded by king Christian IV of Denmark. The anchorage north of today's town was named Königshafen to honour this event.
"Words" was the Bee Gees third UK top 10 hit, reaching number 8, and in a UK television special on ITV in December 2011 it was voted fourth in "The Nation's Favourite Bee Gees Song". The song has been recorded by many other artists., including hit versions by Rita Coolidge in 1978 and Boyzone in 1996. This was Boyzone's fifth single and their first number one hit in the UK.
Barry Gibb explains:
Robin Gibb: "'Words' reflects a mood, It was written after an argument. Barry had been arguing with someone, I had been arguing with someone, and happened to be in the same mood. [The arguments were] about absolutely nothing. They were just words. That is what the song is all about; words can make you happy or words can make you sad".
"Words" is a 1982 song by F. R. David, which sold eight million copies worldwide and peaked at number two on the British charts in spring of 1983. The song was originally released only in France and Monaco in the winter of 1981, later it was released in the rest of Europe. In 1983, it finally was released in America and the UK. It was a huge European hit, peaking at number one in Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria and Norway. It also went to number one in South Africa in late 1982 and spent 25 weeks on the charts. The photography of the 7" vinyl was made by Vassili Ulrich.
Initial copies of the recording on both LP and single credit the composition of "Words" solely to Robert Fitoussi, which is the real name of F. R. David. All later reissues of F. R. David's original recording of "Words", as well as all re-recordings, credit the composition of the song to Fitoussi (music), and Marty Kupersmith & Louis S. Yaguda (lyrics).
In the 2000s, David released a French language duo version of the song with the singer Winda entitled "Words, j'aime ces mots". F. R. David and Winda included also an English version as a duo.
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